Reflections on remote data science work

It’s been about a year and a half since I joined Automattic as a remote data scientist. This is the longest I’ve been in one position since finishing my PhD in 2012. This is also the first time I’ve worked full-time with a fully-distributed team. In this post, I briefly discuss some of the top pluses and minuses of remote work, based on my experience so far.

+ Flexible hours – Potentially boundless work

By far, one of the top perks of remote work with a distributed team is truly flexible hours. I only have one or two synchronous meetings a week, and in the rest of my time I’m free to work the hours I prefer. No one expects me to be online at specific times, as long as the work gets done and I respond to pings within a reasonable time. As I’m a morning person, this means that I typically work a few hours in the early morning, take a long break (e.g., to surf or run some errands), and then work a few more hours in the afternoon or early evening.

The potential downside of such flexibility is not being able to stop working, especially as most of my colleagues are in Europe and North America. I deal with this by avoiding all work communications during my designated non-work hours. For example, I don’t have any work-related apps on my phone, I keep all my work tabs in a separate tab group, and I turn Slack off when I’m not working. I found that this approach sets enough of a boundary between my work and personal life, though I do end up thinking about work problems outside work hours occasionally.

+ More time for non-work activities – There’s never enough time!

Not commuting freed up the equivalent of a workday in my schedule. In addition, having flexible hours means that I can make time in the middle of the day for leisure activities like surfing and diving. However, it’s still a full-time job, so I’m not completely free to pursue non-work activities. It often feels like there isn’t enough time in the day, as I can always think of more stuff I’d like to do. But my current situation is much better than having to commute on a daily basis. Even though it’s been a relatively short time, I find the idea of going back to full-time office work hard to imagine.

+ No need to attend an office – Possible isolation from colleagues (and the real world)

Offices – especially open-plan offices – are not great places to get work done. This is definitely the case with work that requires a high level of concentration over uninterrupted blocks of time, like coding and data analysis. Working from home is great for avoiding distractions – there’s no need for silly horse blinders here (though I do enjoy looking at the bird and lizard action outside my window).

One good thing about offices is the physical availability of colleagues. It’s easy to ask others for feedback, socialise over drinks or shared meals, and keep up to date with company politics. Automattic works around the lack of daily physical interaction by running a few meetups a year. The number of people attending a meetup can vary from a handful for team meetups, to hundreds for the annual Grand Meetup. In all cases, the idea is to bring employees together for up to a week at a time to work and socialise. In my experience, the everyday distance creates a craving to attend meetups. I’ve never worked in a place where co-workers were so enthusiastic about spending so much time together – with non-distributed companies, team building is often seen as a chore. I suppose that the physical distance makes us appreciate the opportunity to be together and make the most of this precious time – it’s a bit like being in a long-distance relationship.

That said, in the majority of the time, isolation can be a problem. As I’m based in Australia, I probably feel it more than others – most of my teammates are offline during my work hours, which means that there’s no one to chat with on Slack. This isn’t a huge issue, but I do need to ensure I get enough social interaction through other avenues. As the jobs page of Bandcamp (another distributed company) used to say: “If you do not have a strong social structure outside of work then employment at Bandcamp will likely lead to heart disease and an early death. We’re hiring!”

+ Most communication is written – Information overload

As Automattic is a fully-distributed company, most of the communication is done in writing. The main tools are Slack and internal forums called P2s (emails are rarely used). This makes catching up on the latest company news easy in comparison to places that rely more heavily on synchronous meetings. The downside of so much written communication is potential information overload. It is impossible to follow all the P2 posts, and even keeping up with stuff I should know can sometimes be overwhelming. I especially feel it in the mornings, as most of my colleagues work while I’m sleeping. Therefore, catching up on everything that happened overnight and responding to pings often takes over an hour – things are rarely as I left them when I last logged off. I experience this same feeling of being overwhelmed when coming back from vacation. Depending on the length of time away, it can take days to catch up. On the plus side, this process doesn’t rely on someone filling me in – it’s all there for me to read.

+ Free trips around the world – Jet lag and flying

As noted above, Automatticians meet in person a few times a year. Since joining, I attended meetups in Montreal, Whistler, Playa del Carmen, Bali, and Orlando. In some cases, I used the opportunity for personal trips near the meetup locations. Such trips can be a lot of fun. However, the obvious downside when travelling from Australia is that getting to meetups usually involves days of jetlag and long flights (e.g., the 17-hour Dallas to Sydney trip). Nonetheless, I still enjoy the travel opportunities. For example, I doubt I would have ever visited Florida and snorkelled with manatees if it wasn’t for Automattic.

+ Exposure to diverse opinions and people – Cultural differences can pose challenges

Australia’s population is made up of many migrants, especially in the tech industry. However, all such migrants have some familiarity with Australian culture and values. The composition of Automattic’s workforce is even more diverse, and it lacks the unifying factor of everyone choosing to live in the same place. This is mostly positive, as I find the exposure to a diverse set of people interesting, and everyone tends to be friendly, welcoming, and focused on the work rather than on cultural differences. However, it’s important to be aware of differences in communication styles. There’s also a wider range of cultural sensitivities than when working with a more homogeneous group. Still, I haven’t found it to be much of an issue, possibly because I’m already used to being a migrant. For example, moving to Australia from Israel required some adjustment of my communication style to be less direct.

Closing words

Overall, I like working with Automattic. For me, the positives outweigh the negatives, as evidenced by the fact that it’s the longest I’ve been in one position since 2012. Doing remote data science work doesn’t seem particularly different to doing any other sort of non-physical work remotely. I hope that more companies will join Automattic and the growing list of remote companies, and offer their employees the option to work from wherever they’re most productive.

Defining data science in 2018

I got my first data science job in 2012, the year Harvard Business Review announced data scientist to be the sexiest job of the 21st century. Two years later, I published a post on my then-favourite definition of data science, as the intersection between software engineering and statistics. Unfortunately, that definition became somewhat irrelevant as more and more people jumped on the data science bandwagon – possibly to the point of making data scientist useless as a job title. However, I still call myself a data scientist. Even better – I still get paid for being a data scientist. But what does it mean? What do I actually do here? This article is a short summary of my understanding of the definition of data science in 2018.

It’s not all about machine learning

As I was wrapping up my PhD in 2012, I started thinking about my next steps. I knew I wanted to get back to working in the tech industry, ideally with a small startup. But it wasn’t clear to me how to market myself – my LinkedIn title at the time was “software engineer with a research background”, which is a bit of a mouthful. Around that time I heard about Kaggle and decided to try competing. This went pretty well, and exposed me to the data science community globally and in Melbourne, where I was living at the time. That’s how I first met Adam Neumann, the founder of Giveable, a startup that aimed to recommend gifts based on social networking data. Upon graduating, I joined Giveable as a data scientist. Changing my LinkedIn title quickly led to many other offers, but I was happy to be working on Giveable – I felt fortunate to have found a startup job that was related to my PhD research on recommender systems.

My understanding of data science at the time was heavily influenced by Kaggle and the tech industry. Kaggle was only about predictive modelling competitions back then, and so I believed that data science is about using machine learning to build models and deploy them as part of various applications. I was very comfortable with that definition, having spent my PhD years on several predictive modelling tasks, and having worked as a software engineer prior to that.

Things have changed considerably since 2012. It is now much easier to deploy machine learning models, even without a deep understanding of how they work. Many more people call themselves data scientists, including some who are more focused on data analysis than on building data products. Even Kaggle – which is now owned by Google – has broadened its scope beyond modelling competitions to support other types of analysis. Numerous articles have been published on the meaning of data science in the past six years. We seem to be going towards a broad definition of the field, which includes any type of general data analysis. This trend of broadening the definition may make data scientist somewhat useless as a job title. However, I believe that data science tasks remain useful, as shown by the following definitions.

Recent definitions by Hernán, Hawkins, and Dubossarsky

In a recent article, Hernán et al. classify data science tasks into three types: description, prediction, and causal inference. Like other authors, they argue that causal inference has been neglected by traditional statistics and some scientific disciplines. They claim that the emergence of data science is an opportunity to get causal inference “right”. Further, they emphasise the importance of domain expert knowledge, which is essential in causal inference. Defining data science in this broad manner seems to capture the essence of what the field is about these days. However, purely descriptive tasks are still often performed by data analysts rather than scientists. And the distinction between prediction and causal inference can be a bit fuzzy, especially as the tools for the latter are at a lower level of maturity. In addition, while I agree with Hernán et al. that domain expertise is important, it seems unlikely that this will forever be the case. No one is born an expert – expertise is gained by learning from and interacting with the world. Therefore, it’s plausible that gaining expertise can and will be automated. Further, there are numerous cases where experts were proven to be wrong. For example, it wasn’t so long ago that doctors recommended smoking.

Despite the importance of domain knowledge, one can argue that scientists that specialise in a single domain are not data scientists. In fact, the ability to go beyond one domain and think of data in a more abstract manner is what makes a data scientist. Applying this abstract knowledge often requires some domain expertise or input from domain experts, but most data science techniques are not domain-specific – they can be applied to many different problems. John Hawkins explains this point well in an article titled why all scientists are not data scientists:

Those scientists and statisticians who have focused themselves on understanding the limitations and possibilities of making inferences from experimental data are the ones who are the forerunners to data scientists. They have a skill which transcends the particulars of what it takes to do lab work on cell cultures, or field studies for ecology etc. Their core skill involves thinking about the data involved at an abstracted level. To ask the question “given data with these properties, what conclusions can we draw?”

Finally, according to Eugene Dubossarsky, “there’s only one purpose to data science, and that is to support decisions. And more specifically, to make better decisions. That should be something no one can argue with.” This goal-focused definition is unsurprising, given the fact that Eugene runs a training and consulting business and has been working in the field for over 20 years. I’m not going to argue with him, but to put it all together, we can define data science as a field that deals with description, prediction, and causal inference from data in a manner that is both domain-independent and domain-aware, with the ultimate goal of supporting decisions.

Everyone loves a good buzzword, and these days AI (Artificial Intelligence) is one of the hottest buzzwords. However, despite what some people may try to tell you, AI is unlikely to make data science obsolete any time soon. Following the above definition, as long as there is a need to make decisions based on data, there will be a need for data scientists. This includes decisions that aren’t made by humans, as data scientists are involved in building systems that make decisions autonomously.

The resurgence of AI feels somewhat amusing given my personal experience. One of the reasons I decided to pursue a PhD in natural language processing and personalisation was my interest in what I considered to be AI back in 2008. My initial introduction to the field was through an AI course and a project I did as part of my bachelor’s degree in computer science. However, by the time I graduated from my PhD, saying that I’m an AI expert seemed less useful than calling myself a data scientist. It may be that the field is about to shift again, and that rebranding as an AI expert would be more beneficial (though I’d be doing exactly the same work). Titles are somewhat silly – I’m going to continue working with data to support decisions for as long as there is demand for this kind of work and I continue enjoying it. There is plenty to learn and develop in this area, regardless of buzzwords and sexy titles.

Engineering Data Science at Automattic

A post I’ve written on applying some software engineering best practices to data science projects.

Most data scientists have to write code to analyze data or build products. While coding, data scientists act as software engineers. Adopting best practices from software engineering is key to ensuring the correctness, reproducibility, and maintainability of data science projects. This post describes some of our efforts in the area.

One of many data science Venn diagrams. Source: Data Science Stack Exchange

Different data scientists, different backgrounds

Data science is often defined as the intersection of many fields, including software engineering and statistics. However, as demonstrated by the above Venn diagram, viewing it as an intersection tends to be too exclusive – in reality, it’s a union of many fields. Hence, data scientists tend to come from various backgrounds, and it is common to encounter data scientists with no formal training in computer science or software engineering. According to Michael Hochster, data scientists can be classified into two types

View original post 1,069 more words

Advice for aspiring data scientists and other FAQs

Aspiring data scientists and other visitors to this site often repeat the same questions. This post is the definitive collection of my answers to such questions (which may evolve over time).

How do I become a data scientist?

It depends on your situation. Before we get into it, have you thought about why you want to become a data scientist?

Hmm… Not really. Why should I become a data scientist?

I can’t answer this for you, but it’s great to see you asking why. Do you know what data science is? Do you understand what data scientists do?

Sort of. Just so we’re on the same page, what is data science?

What are the hardest parts of data science?

Thanks, that’s helpful. But what do data scientists actually do?

It varies a lot. This variability makes the job title somewhat useless. You should try to get an idea what areas of data science interest you. For many people, excitement over the technical aspects wanes with time. And even if you still find the technical aspects exciting, most jobs have boring parts. When considering career changes, think of the non-technical aspects that would keep you engaged.

To answer the question, here are some posts on things I’ve done: Joined Automattic by improving the Elasticsearch language detection plugin, calculated customer lifetime value, analysed A/B test results, built recommender systems (including one for Bandcamp music), competed on Kaggle, and completed a PhD. I’ve also dabbled in deep learning, marine surveys, causality, and other things that I haven’t had the chance to write about.

Cool! Can you provide a general overview of how to become a data scientist?

I’m pretty happy with my current job, but still thinking of becoming a data scientist. What should I do?

Find ways of doing data science within your current role, working overtime if needed. Working on a real problem in a familiar domain is much more valuable than working on toy problems from online courses and platforms like Kaggle (though they’re also useful). If you’re a data analyst, learn how to program to automate and simplify your analyses. If you’re a software engineer, become comfortable with analysing and modelling data. Machine learning doesn’t have to be a part of what you choose to do.

I’m pretty busy. What online course should I take to learn about the area?

Calling Bullshit: Data Reasoning for the Digital Age is a good place to start. Deep learning should be pretty low on your list if you don’t have much background in the area.

Should I learn Python or R? Keras or Tensorflow? What about <insert name here>?

It doesn’t matter. Focus on principles and you’ll be fine. The following quote still applies today (to people of all genders).

As to methods, there may be a million and then some, but principles are few. The man who grasps principles can successfully select his own methods. The man who tries methods, ignoring principles, is sure to have trouble.

I want to become a data science freelancer. Can you provide some advice?

As with any freelancing job, expect to spend much of your time on sales and networking. I’ve only explored the freelancing path briefly, but Radim Řehůřek has published great slides on the topic. If you’re thinking of freelancing as a way of gaining financial independence, also consider spending less, earning more, and investing wisely.

Can you recommend an academic data science degree?

Sorry, but I don’t know much about those degrees. Boris Gorelik has some interesting thoughts on studying data science.

Will you be my mentor?

Probably not, unless you’re hard-working, independent, and doing something I find interesting. Feel free to contact me if you believe we’d both find the relationship beneficial.

Can you help with my project?

Probably not, as I work full-time with Automattic. I barely have time for my side projects, and I’m not looking for more paid work. However, if you think I’d find your project exciting, please do contact me.

What about them? There isn’t a single definition of right and wrong, as morality is multi-dimensional. I believe it’s important to question your own choices, and avoid applying data science blindly. For me, this means divesting from harmful industries like fossil fuels and striving to go beyond the creation of greedy robots (among other things).

I’m a manager. When should I hire a data scientist and start using machine learning?

There’s a good chance you don’t need a data scientist yet, but you should be aware of common pitfalls when trying to be data-driven. It’s also worth reading Paras Chopra’s post on what you need to know before you board the machine learning train.

Do you want to buy my products or services?

No. If I did, I’d contact you.

I have a question that isn’t answered here or anywhere on the internet, and I think you can help. Can I contact you?

My 10-step path to becoming a remote data scientist with Automattic

About two years ago, I read the book The Year without Pants, which describes the author’s experience leading a team at Automattic (the company behind WordPress.com, among other products). Automattic is a fully-distributed company, which means that all of its employees work remotely (hence pants are optional). While the book discusses some of the challenges of working remotely, the author’s general experience was very positive. A few months after reading the book, I decided to look for a full-time position after a period of independent work. Ideally, I wanted a well-paid data science-y remote job with an established distributed tech company that offers a good life balance and makes products I care about. Automattic seemed to tick all my boxes, so I decided to apply for a job with them. This post describes my application steps, which ultimately led to me becoming a data scientist with Automattic.

Before jumping in, it’s worth noting that this post describes my personal experience. If you apply for a job with Automattic, your experience is likely to be different, as the process varies across teams, and evolves over time.

📧 Step 1: Do background research and apply

I decided to apply for a data wrangler position with Automattic in October 2015. While data wrangler may sound less sexy than data scientist, reading the job ad led me to believe that the position may involve interesting data science work. This impression was strengthened by some LinkedIn stalking, which included finding current data wranglers and reading through their profiles and websites. I later found out that all the people on the data division start out as data wranglers, and then they may pick their own title. Some data wranglers do data science work, while others are more focused on data engineering, and there are some projects that require a broad range of skills. As the usefulness of the term data scientist is questionable, I’m not too fussed about fancy job titles. It’s more important to do interesting work in a supportive environment.

Applying for the job was fairly straightforward. I simply followed the instructions from the ad:

Does this sound interesting? If yes, please send a short email to jobs @ this domain telling us about yourself and attach a resumé. Let us know what you can contribute to the team. Include the title of the position you’re applying for and your name in the subject. Proofread! Make sure you spell and capitalize WordPress and Automattic correctly. We are lucky to receive hundreds of applications for every position, so try to make your application stand out. If you apply for multiple positions or send multiple emails there will be one reply.

Having been on the receiving side of job applications, I find it surprising that many people don’t bother writing a cover letter, addressing the selection criteria in the ad, or even applying for a job they’re qualified to do. Hence, my cover letter was fairly short, comprising of several bullet points that highlight the similarities between the job requirements and my experience. It was nothing fancy, but simple cover letters have worked well for me in the past.

⏳ Step 2: Wait patiently

The initial application was followed by a long wait. From my research, this is the typical scenario. This is unsurprising, as Automattic is a fairly small company with a large footprint, which is both distributed and known as a great place to work (e.g., its Glassdoor rating is 4.9). Therefore, it attracts many applicants from all over the world, which take a while to process. In addition, Matt Mullenweg (Automattic’s CEO) reviews job applications before passing them on to the team leads.

As I didn’t know that Matt reviewed job applications, I decided to try to shorten the wait by getting introduced to someone in the data division. My first attempt was via a second-degree LinkedIn connection who works for Automattic. He responded quickly when I reached out to him, saying that his experience working with the company is in line with the Glassdoor reviews – it’s the best job he’s had in his 15-year-long career. However, he couldn’t help me with an intro, because there is no simple way around Automattic’s internal processes. Nonetheless, he reassured me that it is worth waiting patiently, as the strict process means that you end up working with great people.

I wasn’t in a huge rush to find a job, but in December 2015 I decided to accept an offer to become the head of data science at Car Next Door. This was a good decision at the time, as I believe in the company’s original vision of reducing the number of cars on the road through car sharing, and it seemed like there would be many interesting projects for me to work on. The position wasn’t completely remote, but as the company was already spread across several cities, I was able to work from home for a day or two every week. In addition, it was a pleasant commute by bike from my Sydney home to the office, so putting the fully-remote job search on hold didn’t seem like a major sacrifice. As I haven’t heard anything from Automattic at that stage, it seemed unwise to reject a good offer, so I started working full-time with Car Next Door in January 2016.

I successfully attracted Automattic’s attention with a post I published on the misuse of the word insights by many tech companies, which included an example from WordPress.com. Greg Ichneumon Brown, one of the data wranglers, commented on the post, and invited me to apply to join Automattic and help them address the issues I raised. This happened after I accepted the offer from Car Next Door, and hasn’t resulted in any speed up of the process, so I just gave up on Automattic and carried on with my life.

💬 Step 3: Chat with the data lead

I finally heard back from Automattic in February 2016 (four months after my initial application and a month into my employment with Car Next Door). Martin Remy, who leads the data division, emailed me to enquire if I’m still interested in the position. I informed him that I was no longer looking for a job, but we agreed to have an informal chat, as I’ve been waiting for such a long time.

As is often the case with Automattic interviews, the chat with Martin was completely text-based. Working with a distributed team means that voice and video calls can be hard to schedule. Hence, Automattic relies heavily on textual channels, and text-based interviews allow the company to test the written communication skills of candidates. The chat revolved around my past work experience, and Martin also took the time to answer my questions about the company and the data division. At the conclusion of the chat, Martin suggested I contact him directly if I was ever interested in continuing the application process. While I was happy with my position at the time, the chat strengthened my positive impression of Automattic, and I decided that I would reapply if I were to look for a full-time position again.

My next job search started earlier than I had anticipated. In October 2016, I decided to leave Car Next Door due to disagreements with the founders over the general direction of the company. In addition, I had more flexibility in choosing where to live, as my personal circumstances had changed. As I’ve always been curious about life outside the capital cities of Australia, I wanted to move away from Sydney. While I could have probably continued working remotely with Car Next Door, I felt that it would be better to find a job with a fully-distributed team. Therefore, I messaged Martin and we scheduled another chat.

The second chat with Martin took place in early November. Similarly to the first chat, it was conducted via Skype text messages, and revolved around my work in the time that has passed since the first chat. This time, as I was keen on continuing with the process, I asked more specific questions about what kind of work I’m likely to end up doing and what the next steps would be. The answers were that I’d be joining the data science team, and that the next steps are a pre-trial test, a paid trial, and a final interview with Matt. While this sounds straightforward, it took another six months until I finally became an Automattic employee (but I wasn’t in a rush).

☑️ Step 4: Pass the pre-trial test

The pre-trial test consisted of a data analysis task, where I was given a dataset and a set of questions to answer by Carly Stambaugh, the data science lead. The goal of the test is to evaluate the candidate’s approach to a problem, and assess organisational and communication skills. As such, the focus isn’t on obtaining a specific result, so candidates are given a choice of several potential avenues to explore. The open-ended nature of the task is reminiscent of many real-world data science projects, where you don’t always have a clear idea of what you’re going to discover. While some people may find this kind of uncertainty daunting, I find it interesting, as it is one of the things that makes data science a science.

I spent a few days analysing the data and preparing a report, which was submitted as a Jupyter Notebook. After submitting my initial report, there were a few follow-up questions, which I answered by email. The report was reviewed by Carly and Martin, and as they were satisfied with my work, I was invited to proceed to the next stage: A paid trial project.

👨‍💻 Step 5: Do the trial project

The main part of the application process with Automattic is the paid trial project. The rationale behind doing paid trials was explained a few years ago by Matt in Hire by Auditions, Not Resumes:

Before we hire anyone, they go through a trial process first, on contract. They can do the work at night or over the weekend, so they don’t have to leave their current job in the meantime. We pay a standard rate of $25 per hour, regardless of whether you’re applying to be an engineer or the chief financial officer. During the trials, we give the applicants actual work. If you’re applying to work in customer support, you’ll answer tickets. If you’re an engineer, you’ll work on engineering problems. If you’re a designer, you’ll design. There’s nothing like being in the trenches with someone, working with them day by day. It tells you something you can’t learn from resumes, interviews, or reference checks. At the end of the trial, everyone involved has a great sense of whether they want to work together going forward. And, yes, that means everyone — it’s a mutual tryout. Some people decide we’re not the right fit for them. The goal of my trial project was to improve the Elasticsearch language detection algorithm. This took about a month, and ultimately resulted in a pull request that got merged into the language detection plugin. I find this aspect of the process pretty exciting: While the plugin is used to classify millions of documents internally by Automattic, its impact extends beyond the company, as Elasticsearch is used by many other organisations and projects. This stands in contrast to many other technical job interviews, which consist of unpaid work on toy problems under stressful conditions, where the work performed is ultimately thrown away. While the monetary compensation for the trial work is lower than the market rate for data science consulting, I valued the opportunity to work on a real open source project, even if this hadn’t led to me getting hired. There was much more to the trial project than what’s shown in the final pull request. Most of the discussions were held on an internal project thread, primarly under the guidance of Carly (the data science lead), and Greg (the data wrangler who replied to my post a year earlier). The project was kicked off with a general problem statement: There was some evidence that the Elasticsearch language detection plugin doesn’t perform well on short texts, and my mission was to improve it. As the plugin didn’t include any tests for short texts, one of the main contributions of my work was the creation of datasets and tests to measure its accuracy on texts of different lengths. This was followed by some tweaks that improved the plugin’s performance, as summarised in the pull request. Internally, this work consisted of several iterations where I came up with ideas, asked questions, implemented the ideas, shared the results, and discussed further steps. There are still many possible improvements to the work done in the trial. However, as trials generally last around a month, we decided to end it after a few iterations. I enjoyed the trial process, but it is definitely not for everyone. Most notably, there is a strong emphasis on asynchronous text-based communication, which is the main mode by which projects are coordinated at Automattic. People who don’t enjoy written communication may find this aspect challenging, but I have always found that writing helps me organise my thoughts, and that I retain information better when reading than when listening to people speak. That being said, Automatticians do meet in person several times a year, and some teams have video chats for some discussions. While doing the trial, I had a video chat with Carly, which was the first (and last) time in the process that I got to see and hear a live human. However, this was not an essential part of the trial project, as our chat was mostly on the data scientist role and my job expectations. ⏳ Step 6: Wait patiently I finished working on the trial project just before Christmas. The feedback I received throughout the trial was positive, but Martin, Carly, and Greg had to go through the work and discuss it among themselves before making a final decision. This took about a month, due to the holiday period, various personal circumstances, and the data science team meetup that was scheduled for January 2017. Eventually, Martin got back to me with positive news: They were satisfied with my trial work, which meant there was only one stage left – the final interview with Matt Mullenweg, Automattic’s CEO. 👉 Step 7: Ping Matt Like other parts of the process, the interview with Matt is text-based. The way it works is fairly simple: I was instructed to message Matt on Slack and wait for a response, which may take days or weeks. I sent Matt a message on January 25, and was surprised to hear back from him the following morning. However, that day was Australia Day, which is a public holiday here. Therefore, I only got back to him two hours after he messaged me that morning, and by that time he was probably already busy with other things. This was the start of a pretty long wait. ⏳ Step 8: Wait patiently I left Car Next Door at the end of January, as I figured that I would be able to line up some other work even if things didn’t work out with Automattic. My plan was to take some time off, and then move up to the Northern Rivers area of New South Wales. I had two Reef Life Survey trips planned, so I wasn’t going to start working again before mid-April. I assumed that I would hear back from Matt before then, which would have allowed me to make an informed decision whether to look for another job or not. After two weeks of waiting, the time for my dive trips was nearing. As I was going to be without mobile reception for a while, I thought it’d be worth letting Matt know my schedule. After discussing the matter with Martin, I messaged Matt. He responded, saying that we might as well do the interview at the beginning of April, as I won’t be starting work before that time anyway. I would have preferred to be done with the interview earlier, but was happy to have some certainty and not worry about missing more chat messages before April. In early April, I returned from my second dive trip (which included a close encounter with Cyclone Debbie), and was hoping to sort out my remote work situation while completing the move up north. Unfortunately, while the move was successful, I was ready to give up on Automattic because I haven’t heard back from Matt at all in April. However, Martin remained optimistic and encouraged me to wait patiently, which I did as I was pretty busy with the move and with some casual freelancing projects. 💬 Step 9: Chat with Matt and accept the job offer The chat with Matt finally happened on May 2. As is often the case, it took a few hours and covered my background, the trial process, and some other general questions. I asked him about my long wait for the final chat, and he apologised for me being an outlier, as most chats happen within two weeks of a candidate being passed over to him. As the chat was about to conclude, we got to the topic of salary negotiation (which went well), and then the process was finally over! Within a few hours of the chat I was sent an offer letter and an employment contract. As Automattic has an entity in Australia (called Ausomattic), it’s a fairly standard contract. I signed the contract and started work the following week – over a year and a half after my initial application. Even before I started working, I booked tickets to meet the data division in Montréal – a fairly swift transition from the long wait for the final interview. 🎉 Step 10: Start working and choose a job title As noted above, Automatticians get to choose their own job titles, so to become a data scientist with Automattic, I had to set my job title to Data Scientist. This is generally how many people become data scientists these days, even outside Automattic. However, job titles don’t matter as much as job satisfaction. And after 2.5 months with Automattic, I’m very satisfied with my decision to join the company. My first three weeks were spent doing customer support, like all new Automattic employees. Since then, I’ve been involved in projects to make engagement measurement more consistent (harder than it sounds, as counting things is hard), and to improve the data science codebase (e.g., moving away from Legacy Python). Besides that, I also went to Montréal for the data division meetup, and have started getting into chatbot work. I’m looking forward to doing more work and sharing my experience here and on data.blog. Exploring and visualising reef life survey data Last year, I wrote about the Reef Life Survey (RLS) project and my experience with offline data collection on the Great Barrier Reef. I found that using auto-generated flashcards with an increasing level of difficulty is a good way to memorise marine species. Since publishing that post, I have improved the flashcards and built a tool for exploring the aggregate survey data. Both tools are now publicly available on the RLS website. This post describes the tools and their implementation, and outlines possible directions for future work. The tools Each tool is fairly simple and focused on helping users achieve a small set of tasks. The best way to get familiar with the tools is to play with them by following the links below. If you’re only interested in using the tools, you can stop reading after this section. The rest of this post describes the data behind the tools, and some technical implementation details. The Frequency Explorer tool lets users select RLS sites and view the species that have been recorded there (RLS website | full-screen version). The Flashcards tool helps users memorise the names of marine species by showing random images of species from a chosen area (RLS website | full-screen version). The data The RLS database includes data collected by volunteer scuba divers on the diversity and abundance of marine life in sites around the world. An RLS survey is performed along a 50 metre tape, which is laid at a constant depth following a reef’s contour. After laying the tape, one diver takes photos of the bottom at 2.5 metre intervals along the transect line. These photos are analysed later to classify the type of substrate or growth (e.g., hard coral or sand). Divers then complete two swims along each side of the transect. On the first swim (method 1), divers record all the fish species and large swimming animals found in a 5 metre corridor from the line. The second swim (method 2) targets invertebrates and cryptic animals, and requires keeping closer to the bottom and looking under ledges and vegetation in a 1 metre corridor from the line. The RLS manual includes all the details on how surveys are performed. The data collected in the surveys is available for download from a Data Portal hosted by the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania. As of early June 2017, the downloadable dataset consists of over half a million data points from almost ten thousand surveys. When I first started studying marine species, I had to find a source for photos. Initially, I used Scrapy to build simple scrapers that downloaded photos from sites such as The Australian Museum, Fishbase, and Fishes of Australia. Last year, RLS made a large number of high-quality photos taken by volunteers available on their site (via the Species Search function). In addition to their high quality, an advantage of the RLS photos over images from other sources is that they were all taken in situ, i.e., in each animal’s natural habitat. On the other hand, other sites also include photos of dissections and hand-drawn illustrations, which aren’t as useful for divers who want to see marine animals as they appear in the wild. Working exclusively with the RLS image dataset has significantly improved the appearance and usefulness of the tools I built. The raw RLS survey data comes in the form of over 100MB of CSV files. For the purpose of building the tools, I summarised the data into two JSON files with an overall size of less than 3MB (less than 1MB when compressed). This made it possible to implement both tools as single-page apps that don’t require any requests to the server after the initial fetching of the data. The two summary JSONs are: • species.json – a mapping from species ID to an array of five elements: scientific name, common name, species page URL, survey method (0: method 1, 1: method 2, or 2: both), and images (array of URLs). • site-surveys.json – a mapping from site code to an array of seven elements: realm, ecoregion, site name, longitude, latitude, number of surveys, and species counts (mapping from each observed species ID to the number of surveys on which it was seen). Both files use mappings to arrays rather than nested objects to reduce the download size. I originally created the files myself by downloading the CSVs from the data portal and scraping the RLS website for images and common names. Static versions of those files from early June 2017 can be found on GitHub (species.json and site-surveys.json). As part of the integration with the RLS website, the RLS developers will implement live versions of the files, which will get updated automatically. I’ll add the links to the live versions when they become available. Please let me or the RLS team know if you find any issues with the data. The approach I chose to produce the species counts in site-surveys.json doesn’t take abundance into account, i.e., each species is counted once per survey regardless of the number of times it was seen on the survey. Ignoring abundance means that for sites with few surveys, the species count may not be a good indicator of future likelihood of occurrence. For example, some fish are solitary and seen rarely, while others occur in schools and are likely to be seen on every survey. However, this is less of an issue for sites with many surveys. In addition, this simple counting approach is easier to explain than some approaches that do account for abundance. Implementation details The source code for the tools can be found in my GitHub Pages repository. Each tool is a simple single-page application, consisting of three files: index.jade, main.coffee, and style.less. In addition, the root source directory contains some common code in common.less and util.coffee, as well as configuration files for npm and Grunt. Grunt is used to compile the source files from Jade/Pug, CoffeeScript, and Less to HTML, JS, and CSS respectively. These files are then served statically by GitHub Pages. The common CoffeeScript code loads the JSONs asynchronously, and processes them into nested mappings that are easier to work with than arrays. In addition, the common code contains a method to summarise counts from multiple sites, by aggregating them as simple sums. This means that sites that are surveyed more frequently get weighted more heavily. For example, if a certain fish X was seen once in site A, twice in site B, and never in site C, its count across A, B, and C is 1 + 2 + 0 = 3, but if A was surveyed once, B was surveyed twice, and C was surveyed seven times, X’s aggregate frequency is 3 / (1 + 2 + 7) = 30%. In the future, it may be worth normalising each site’s species counts by the number of times the site was surveyed (making X’s aggregate frequency (1 / 1 + 2 / 2 + 0 / 7) / 3 = 66.67%), but then rare species in rarely-surveyed sites may be overweighted. The Frequency Explorer tool uses the Google Maps API to show a map with all the past survey sites. Users can select sites by drawing an area on the map, or by searching for site names in a Select2 box. The tool fails gracefully when Google Maps isn’t available, which makes it possible to run it offline (assuming you have local copies of the species images). This was very useful on my last trip to the Coral Sea, where I was away from mobile reception for weeks. When sites are selected, the code generates a summary table of the species frequencies, which can be exported to a dynamically-generated CSV. In addition, users can choose to display images of all the species in the table. As this can trigger the download of thousands of images, I used vanilla-lazyload to only load images when they enter the viewport. Finally, Frequency Explorer can also be used as a site selector for the Flashcards tool, as it contains a link to launch Flashcards with the set of selected sites (which is passed in the Flashcards query string). The Flashcards tool relies on the excellent reveal.js library to dynamically generate a presentation with a random subset of images of species that were recorded at the selected sites. The presentation consists of pairs of image and name slides – each image slide is followed by a slide where the name of the previously-shown animal is revealed. As I found that trying to memorise all the species at once is too hard, I added the ability to adjust the difficulty level of the flashcards by setting a frequency threshold (e.g., show only species that were recorded on 25% of surveys), or by focusing on observations from a single survey method (e.g., method 2 surveys in the tropics tend to be much less diverse than method 1 surveys). To avoid reloading the entire page when the settings change, the slides are regenerated dynamically. Reveal isn’t really built to account for dynamic regeneration of slides, so I had to add a call to Reveal.toggleOverview(false) to get the cards to refresh correctly, but other than that it worked perfectly. Future work There are several possible extensions to the work done so far. First, the integration of the tools into the RLS website is incomplete. They are still served in iframes from my GitHub Pages account, and the JSON data isn’t updated automatically. Completing the integration is dependent on the RLS developers, who also have other priorities. Other RLS-dependent items include better optimisation of images (they’re currently scaled down on the client side), and general performance improvements to the site. Second, the tools themselves could be improved. For example, reliance on third-party libraries should be reduced (e.g., Frequency Explorer uses Bootstrap due to my limited design skills), and it’d be nice if site selections were stored and read from the URL of Frequency Explorer (this is already done for Flashcards). In addition, as the tools are used to train new RLS divers, it’d be useful to extend the Flashcards tool to run in test mode, where users would type in the names of the animals rather than just passively scroll through the presentation. This would make it possible to assess diver readiness to perform surveys based on their test scores. Finally, many other interesting things can be done with the RLS data (in addition to producing scientific papers and reports, which is the main focus of the researchers behind the project). Examples include using the images to automate species identification (as discussed more thoroughly in my previous post on the topic), and building models to predict survey output and detect anomalies (e.g., due to climate change or other unusual factors). If you have other ideas, or end up playing with the data and coming with interesting results, please share your findings in the comments section. Customer lifetime value and the proliferation of misinformation on the internet Suppose you work for a business that has paying customers. You want to know how much money your customers are likely to spend to inform decisions on customer acquisition and retention budgets. You’ve done a bit of research, and discovered that the figure you want to calculate is commonly called the customer lifetime value. You google the term, and end up on a page with ten results (and probably some ads). How many of those results contain useful, non-misleading information? As of early 2017, fewer than half. Why is that? How can it be that after nearly 20 years of existence, Google still surfaces misleading information for common search terms? And how can you calculate your customer lifetime value correctly, avoiding the traps set up by clever search engine marketers? Read on to find out! Background: Misleading search results and fake news While Google tries to filter obvious spam from its index, it still relies to a great extent on popularity to rank search results. Popularity is a function of inbound links (weighted by site credibility), and of user interaction with the presented results (e.g., time spent on a result page before moving on to the next result or search). There are two obvious problems with this approach. First, there are no guarantees that wrong, misleading, or inaccurate pages won’t be popular, and therefore earn high rankings. Second, given Google’s near-monopoly of the search market, if a page ranks highly for popular search terms, it is likely to become more popular and be seen as credible. Hence, when searching for the truth, it’d be wise to follow Abraham Lincoln’s famous warning not to trust everything you read on the internet. Google is not alone in helping spread misinformation. Following Donald Trump’s recent victory in the US presidential election, many people have blamed Facebook for allowing so-called fake news to be widely shared. Indeed, any popular media outlet or website may end up spreading misinformation, especially if – like Facebook and Google – it mainly aggregates and amplifies user-generated content. However, as noted by John Herrman, the problem is much deeper than clearly-fabricated news stories. It is hard to draw the lines between malicious spread of misinformation, slight inaccuracies, and plain ignorance. For example, how would one classify Trump’s claims that climate change is a hoax invented by the Chinese? Should Twitter block his account for knowingly spreading outright lies? Wrong customer value calculation by example Fortunately, when it comes to customer lifetime value, I doubt that any of the top results returned by Google is intentionally misleading. This is a case where inaccuracies and misinformation result from ignorance rather than from malice. However, relying on such resources without digging further is just as risky as relying on pure fabrications. For example, see this infographic by Kissmetrics, which suggests three different formulas for calculating the average lifetime value of a Starbucks customer. Those three formulas yield very different values ($5,489, $11,535, and$25,272), which the authors then say should be averaged to yield the final lifetime value figure. All formulas are based on numbers that the authors call constants, despite the fact that numbers such as the average customer lifespan or retention rate are clearly not constant in this context (since they’re estimated from the data and used as projections into the future). Indeed, several people have commented on the flaws in Kissmetrics’ approach, which is reminiscent of the Dilbert strip where the pointy-haired boss asks Dilbert to average and multiply wrong data.

My main problem with the Kissmetrics infographic is that it helps feed an illusion of understanding that is prevalent among those with no statistical training. As the authors fail to acknowledge the fact that the predictions produced by the formulas are inaccurate, they may cause managers and marketers to believe that they know the lifetime value of their customers. However, it’s important to remember that all models are wrong (but some models are useful), and that the lifetime value of active customers is unknowable since it involves forecasting of uncertain quantities. Hence, it is reckless to encourage people to use the Kissmetrics formulas without trying to quantify how wrong they may be on the specific dataset they’re applied to.

Fader and Hardie: The voice of reason

The formula discussed by Fader and Hardie is $CLV = \sum_{t=0}^{T} m \frac{r^t}{(1 + d)^t}$, where $m$ is the net cash flow per period, $r$ is the retention rate, $d$ is the discount rate, and $T$ is the time horizon. The five issues that Fader and Hardie identify are as follows.

1. The true lifetime value is unknown while the customer is still active, so the formula is actually for the expected lifetime value, i.e., $E(CLV)$.
2. Since the summation is bounded, the formula isn’t really for the lifetime value – it is an estimate of value up to period $T$ (which may still be useful).
3. As the summation starts at $t=0$, it gives the expected value of a customer that hasn’t been acquired yet. According to Fader and Hardie, in some cases the formula starts at $t=1$, i.e., it applies only to existing customers. The distinction between the two cases isn’t always made clear.
4. The formula assumes a constant retention rate. However, it is often the case that retention increases with tenure, i.e., customers who have been with the company for a long time are less likely to churn than recently-acquired customers.
5. It isn’t always possible to calculate a retention rate, as the point at which a customer churns isn’t observed for many products. For example, Starbucks doesn’t know whether customers who haven’t made a purchase for a while have decided to never visit Starbucks again, or whether they’re just going through a period of inactivity. Further, given the ubiquity of Starbucks, it is probably safe to assume that all past customers have a non-zero probability of making another purchase (unless they’re physically dead).

According to Fader and Hardie, “the bottom line is that there is no ‘one formula’ that can be used to compute customer lifetime value“. Therefore, teaching the above formula (or one of its variants) misleads people into thinking that they know how to calculate the lifetime value of customers. Hence, they advocate going back to the definition of lifetime value as “the present value of the future cashflows attributed to the customer relationship“, and using a probabilistic approach to generate estimates of the expected lifetime value for each customer. This conclusion also appears in a more accessible series of blog posts by Custora, where it is claimed that probabilistic modelling can yield significantly more accurate estimates than naive formulas.

Getting serious with the lifetimes package

As mentioned above, Fader and Hardie provide Excel implementations of some of their models, which produce individual-level lifetime value predictions. While this is definitely an improvement over using general formulas, better solutions are available if you can code (or have access to people who can do coding for you). For example, using a software package makes it easy to integrate the lifetime value calculation into a live product, enabling automated interventions to increase revenue and profit (among other benefits). According to Roberto Medri, this approach is followed by Etsy, where lifetime value predictions are used to retain customers and increase their value.

An example of a software package that I can vouch for is the Python lifetimes package, which implements several probabilistic models for lifetime value prediction in a non-contractual setting (i.e., where churn isn’t observed – as in the Starbucks example above). This package is maintained by Cameron Davidson-Pilon of Shopify, who may be known to some readers from his Bayesian Methods for Hackers book and other Python packages. I’ve successfully used the package on a real dataset and have contributed some small fixes and improvements. The documentation on GitHub is quite good, so I won’t repeat it here. However, it is worth reiterating that as with any predictive model, it is important to evaluate performance on your own dataset before deciding to rely on the package’s predictions. If you only take away one thing from this article, let it be the reminder that it is unwise to blindly accept any formula or model. The models implemented in the package (some of which were introduced by Fader and Hardie) are fairly simple and generally applicable, as they rely only on the past transaction log. These simple models are known to sometimes outperform more complex models that rely on richer data, but this isn’t guaranteed to happen on every dataset. My untested feeling is that in situations where clean and relevant training data is plentiful, models that use other features in addition to those extracted from the transaction log would outperform the models provided by the lifetimes package (if you have empirical evidence that supports or refutes this assumption, please let me know).

Conclusion: You’re better than that

Accurate estimation of customer lifetime value is crucial to most businesses. It informs decisions on customer acquisition and retention, and getting it wrong can drive a business from profitability to insolvency. The rise of data science increases the availability of statistical and scientific tools to small and large businesses. Hence, there are few reasons why a revenue-generating business should rely on untested customer value formulas rather than on more realistic models. This extends beyond customer value to nearly every business endeavour: Relying on fabrications is not a sustainable growth strategy, there is no way around learning how to be intelligently driven by data, and no amount of cheap demagoguery and misinformation can alter the objective reality of our world.

Ask Why! Finding motives, causes, and purpose in data science

Some people equate predictive modelling with data science, thinking that mastering various machine learning techniques is the key that unlocks the mysteries of the field. However, there is much more to data science than the What and How of predictive modelling. I recently gave a talk where I argued the importance of asking Why, touching on three different topics: stakeholder motives, cause-and-effect relationships, and finding a sense of purpose. A video of the talk is available below. Unfortunately, the videographer mostly focused on me pacing rather than on the screen, but you can check out the slides here (note that you need to use both the left/right and up/down arrows to see all the slides).

If you’re interested in the topics covered in the talk, here are a few posts you should read.

Stakeholders and their motives

Causality and experimentation

Purpose, ethics, and my personal path

Cover image: Why by Ksayer

If you don’t pay attention, data can drive you off a cliff

You’re a hotshot manager. You love your dashboards and you keep your finger on the beating pulse of the business. You take pride in using data to drive your decisions rather than shooting from the hip like one of those old-school 1950s bosses. This is the 21st century, and data is king. You even hired a sexy statistician or data scientist, though you don’t really understand what they do. Never mind, you can proudly tell all your friends that you are leading a modern data-driven team. Nothing can go wrong, right? Incorrect. If you don’t pay attention, data can drive you off a cliff. This article discusses seven of the ways this can happen. Read on to ensure it doesn’t happen to you.

1. Pretending uncertainty doesn’t exist

Last month, your favourite metric was 5.2%. This month, it’s 5.5%. Looks like things are getting better – you must be doing something right! But is 5.5% really different from 5.2%? All things being equal, you should expect some variability in most of your metrics. The values you see are drawn from a distribution of possible values, which means you can’t be certain what value you’ll be seeing next. Fortunately, with more data you would be able to quantify this uncertainty and know which values are more likely. Don’t fear or ignore uncertainty. Embrace and study it, and you’ll be on the right track.

2. Confusing observed and unobserved quantities

Everyone agrees that the future is uncertain. We can generate forecasts with varying degrees of confidence, but we never know for sure what’s going to happen. However, some people tend to ignore uncertainty in forecasts, treating the unobserved future values as comparable to observed present values. For example, marketers often compare customer lifetime value with the cost of acquiring a customer. The problem is that customer lifetime value relies on a prediction of the net profit from a customer (so it’s largely unobserved and uncertain), while the business has much more control and certainty around the cost of acquiring a customer (though it’s not completely known). Treating the two values as if they’re observed and known is risky, as it can lead to major financial losses.

3. Thinking that your data is correct

Ask anyone who works with data, and they’ll tell you that it’s always messy. A well-known saying among data scientists is that 80% of the work is data cleaning and the other 20% is complaining about data cleaning. Hence, it’s likely that at least some of the figures you’re relying on to make decisions are somewhat inaccurate. However, it’s important to remember that this doesn’t make the data completely useless. But if something looks too good to be true, it probably isn’t true. Finally, it’s highly unlikely that the data is always correct when you like the results and always incorrect when the results aren’t favourable, so don’t use the “guy on the internet said our data isn’t 100% correct” excuse to push back on inconvenient truths.

4. Believing that your data is complete

No matter how big you are, your data doesn’t capture everything your customers do. Even Google and the NSA don’t have a full view of what people are up to in the non-digital world, and they can’t completely read our minds (yet). Most businesses have much less data than the big tech companies, and they look a bit silly trying to explain customer behaviour using only the data they have. At the end of the day, you have to work with the data you can access, but never underestimate the effectiveness of obtaining more (relevant) data.

5. Measuring the wrong thing

Maybe you recently read an article emphasising the importance of real metrics, like daily active users, as opposed to vanity metrics like number of signups to your service. You therefore decide to track the daily active users of your product. But have you thought about whether this metric is relevant to what you’re trying to achieve? If you run a business like Airbnb, where transactions are inherently infrequent, do you really care if people don’t regularly log in? You probably don’t, as long as they use the product when they actually need it. Measuring and trying to optimise the wrong thing can be very risky. Indeed, deciding on metrics and their measurement can be seen as the hardest parts of data science.

6. Not recognising your unconscious incompetence

To quote Bertrand Russell: “One of the painful things about our time is that those who feel certainty are stupid, and those with any imagination and understanding are filled with doubt and indecision.” Not recognising the extent of your ignorance when it comes to data is pretty common among those with no training in the field, which may lead to illusory superiority. This may be exacerbated by the fact that those who do know what they’re doing tend to talk a lot about uncertainty and how there are many things that are simply unknowable. My hope is that this short article would help people graduate from unconscious incompetence, where you don’t even recognise the importance of what you don’t know, to conscious incompetence, where you recognise the need to learn and rely on expert advice.

Once you’ve recognised your skill gaps, you may decide to hire a data scientist to help you get more value out of your data. However, despite the hype, data scientists are not magicians. In fact, because of the hype, the definition of data science is so diluted that some people say that the term itself has become useless. The truth is that dealing with data is hard, every organisation is somewhat different, and it takes time and commitment to get value out of data. The worst thing you can do is to hire an expensive expert to help you, and then ignore their advice when their findings are hard to digest. If you’re not ready to work with a data scientist, you might as well save yourself some money and remain in a state of blissful ignorance.

Note: This article is not a portrayal of how things are with my current employer, Car Next Door. Views expressed are my own. In fact, if you want to work at a place where expert advice is acted on and uncertainty is seen as something to be studied rather than ignored, we’re hiring!

Is Data Scientist a useless job title?

Data science can be defined as either the intersection or union of software engineering and statistics. In recent years, the field seems to be gravitating towards the broader unifying definition, where everyone who touches data in some way can call themselves a data scientist. Hence, while many people whose job title is Data Scientist do very useful work, the title itself has become fairly useless as an indication of what the title holder actually does. This post briefly discusses how we got to this point, where I think the field is likely to go, and what data scientists can do to remain relevant.

The many definitions of data science

About two years ago, I published a post discussing the definition of data scientist by Josh Wills, as a person who is better at statistics than any software engineer and better at software engineering than any statistician. I still quite like this definition, because it describes me well, as someone with education and experience in both areas. However, to be better at statistics than any software engineer and better at software engineering than any statistician, you have to be truly proficient in both areas, as some software engineers are comfortable running complex experiments, and some statisticians are capable of building solid software. Quite a few people who don’t meet Wills’s criteria have decided they wanted to be data scientists too, expanding the definition to be something along the lines of someone who is better at statistics than some software engineers (who’ve never done anything fancier than calculating a sample mean) and better at software engineering than some statisticians (who can’t code).

In addition to software engineering and statistics, data scientists are expected to deeply understand the domain in which they operate, and be excellent communicators. This leads to the proliferation of increasingly ridiculous Venn diagrams, such as the one by Stephan Kolassa:

The perfect data scientist from Kolassa’s Venn diagram is a mythical sexy unicorn ninja rockstar who can transform a business just by thinking about its problems. A more realistic (and less exciting) view of data scientists is offered by Rob Hyndman:

I take the broad inclusive view. I am a data scientist because I do data analysis, and I do research on the methodology of data analysis. The way I would express it is that I’m a data scientist with a statistical perspective and training. Other data scientists will have different perspectives and different training.

We are comfortable with having medical specialists, and we will go to a GP, endocrinologist, physiotherapist, etc., when we have medical problems. We also need to take a team perspective on data science.

None of us can realistically cover the whole field, and so we specialise on certain problems and techniques. It is crazy to think that a doctor must know everything, and it is just as crazy to think a data scientist should be an expert in statistics, mathematics, computing, programming, the application discipline, etc. Instead, we need teams of data scientists with different skills, with each being aware of the boundary of their expertise, and who to call in for help when required.

Indeed, data science is too broad for any data scientist to fully master all areas of expertise. Despite the misleading name of the field, it encompasses both science and engineering, which is why data scientists can be categorised into two types, as suggested by Michael Hochster:

• Type A (analyst): focused on static data analysis. Essentially a statistician with coding skills.
• Type B (builder): focused on building data products. Essentially a software engineer with knowledge in machine learning and statistics.

Type A is more of a scientist, and Type B is more of an engineer. Many people end up doing both, but it is pretty rare to have an even 50-50 split between the science and engineering sides, as they require different mindsets. This is illustrated by the following diagram, showing the information flow in science and engineering (source).

Why Data Scientist is a useless job title

Given that a data scientist is someone who does data analysis, and/or a scientist, and/or an engineer, what does it mean for a person to hold a Data Scientist position? It can mean anything, as it depends on the company and industry. A job title like Data Scientist at Company is about as meaningful as Engineer at Organisation, Scientist at Institution, or Doctor at Hospital. It gives you a general idea what the person’s background is, but provides little clue as to what the person actually does on a day-to-day basis.

Don’t believe me? Let’s look at a few examples. Noah Lorang (Basecamp) is OK with mostly doing arithmetic. David Robinson (Stack Overflow) builds machine learning features and internal R packages, and visualises data. Robert Chang (Twitter) helps surface product insights, create data pipelines, run A/B tests, and build predictive models. Rob Hyndman (Monash University) and Jake VanderPlas (University of Washington) are academic data scientists who contribute to major R and Python open-source libraries, respectively. From personal knowledge, data scientists in many Australian enterprises focus on generating reports and building dashboards. And in my current role at Car Next Door I do a little bit of everything, e.g., implement new features, fix bugs, set up data pipelines and dashboards, run experiments, build predictive models, and analyse data.

To be clear, the work done by many data scientists is very useful. The number of decisions made based on arbitrary thresholds and some means multiplied together on a spreadsheet can be horrifying to those of us with minimal knowledge of basic statistics. Having a good data scientist on board can have a transformative effect on a business. But it’s also very easy to end up with ineffective hires working on low-impact tasks if the business has no idea what their data scientists should be doing. This situation isn’t uncommon, given the wide range of activities that may be performed by data scientists, the lack of consensus on the definition of the field, and a general disagreement over who deserves to be called a real data scientist. We need to move beyond the hype towards clearer definitions that would help align the expectations of data scientists with those of their current and future employers.

It’s time to specialise

Four years ago, I changed my LinkedIn title from software engineer with a research background to data scientist. Various offers started coming my way, and they haven’t stopped since. Many people have done the same. To be a data scientist, you just need to call yourself a data scientist. The dilution of the term means that as a job title, it is useless. Useless terms are unlikely to last, so if you’re seriously thinking of becoming a data scientist, you should also consider specialising. I believe we’ll see the emergence of new specific titles, such as Machine Learning Engineer. In addition, less “sexy” titles, such as Data Analyst, may end up making a comeback. In any case, those of us who invest in building their skills, delivering value in their job, and making sure people know about it don’t have much to worry about.

What do you think? Is specialisation inevitable or are generalist data scientists here to stay? Please let me know privately, via Twitter, or in the comments section.